In Indonesia, mangrove destruction along the coast has resulted in massive coastal erosion. More than 30 million people in Java alone are at risk of flooding and brackish water invading their ponds. Communities in Demak district, Central Java have already lost their income from aquaculture and some have been evacuated as several tidal lakes have emerged. Seawalls that were placed to protect the coastline were unstable and expensive and failed to prevent erosion thus protect the coast. Locally, land loss is aggravated by excessive ground-water use resulting in sinking land, faster than the rising sea level.
Associated Mangrove Aquaculture (AMA) to build Nature-based coastal resilience and a blue economy in Indonesiadownload